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Now that you’ve installed Linux and secured your Linode, it’s time to start doing stuff with it. In this guide, you’ll learn how to host a website. Start by installing a web server, database, and PHP – a popular combination which is commonly referred to a LAMP stack (Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP). Then create or import a database, upload files, and add DNS records. By the time you reach the end of this guide, your Linode will be hosting one or more websites!
Debian 7 and Ubuntu 14.04 LTS are the Linux distributions we’re using as the starting point for the packages and configurations mentioned in this guide.
This guide is designed for small and medium-size websites running on WordPress, Drupal, or another PHP content management system. If your website doesn’t belong in that category, you’ll need to assess your requirements and install custom packages tailored for your particular requirements.
This guide is written for a non-root user. Commands that require elevated privileges are prefixed with sudo. If you’re not familiar with the sudo command, you can check our Users and Groups guide.
Hosting a website starts with installing a web server, an application on your Linode that delivers content through the Internet. This section will help you get started with Apache, the world’s most popular web server. For more information about Apache and other web servers, see our web server reference manuals.
Install Apache on your Linode by entering the following command:
sudo apt-get install apache2
Your Linode will download, install, and start the Apache web server.
Optimizing Apache for a Linode 1GB
Installing Apache is easy, but if you leave it running with the default settings, your server could run out of memory. That’s why it’s important to optimize Apache before you start hosting a website on your Linode. Here’s how to optimize the Apache web server for a Linode 1GB:
These guidelines are designed to optimize Apache for a Linode 1GB, but you can use this information for any size Linode. The values are based on the amount of memory available, so if you have a Linode 2GB, multiply all of the values by 2 and use those numbers for your settings.
Just to be safe, make a copy of Apache’s configuration file by entering the following command. You can restore the duplicate (apache2.backup.conf) if anything happens to the configuration file.
Save the changes to Apache’s configuration file by pressing Control + x and then pressingy. Press Enter to confirm.
Restart Apache to incorporate the new settings. Enter the following command:
sudo service apache2 restart
Good work! You’ve successfully optimized Apache for your Linode, increasing performance and implementing safeguards to prevent excessive resource consumption. You’re almost ready to host websites with Apache.
Configuring Name-based Virtual Hosts
Now that Apache is optimized for performance, it’s time to starting hosting one or more websites. There are several possible methods of doing this. In this section, you’ll use name-based virtual hosts to host websites in your home directory. Here’s how:
You should not be logged in as root while executing these commands. To learn how to create a new user account and log in as that user, see Adding a New User.
Disable the default Apache virtual host by entering the following command:
sudo a2dissite *default
Navigate to your /var/www directory:
Create a folder to hold your website by entering the following command, replacing ‘example.com’ with your domain name:
sudo mkdir example.com
Create a set of folders inside the folder you’ve just created to store your website’s files, logs, and backups. Enter the following command, replacing example.com with your domain name:
The file name must end with .conf in Apache versions 2.4 and later, which Ubuntu 14.04 uses. The .confextension is backwards-compatible with earlier versions.
Now it’s time to create a configuration for your virtual host. We’ve created some basic settings to get your started. Copy and paste the settings shown below in to the virtual host file you just created. Replace example.com with your domain name.
# domain: example.com
# public: /var/www/example.com/public_html/
# Admin email, Server Name (domain name), and any aliases
# Index file and Document Root (where the public files are located)
DirectoryIndex index.html index.php
# Log file locations
CustomLog /var/www/example.com/log/access.log combined
Save the changes to the virtual host configuration file by pressing Control + x and then pressing y. Press Enter to confirm.
Enable your new website by entering the following command. Replace example.com with your domain name:
sudo a2ensite example.com.conf
This creates a symbolic link to your example.com.conf file in the appropriate directory for active virtual hosts.
The previous command will alert you that you need to restart Apache to save the changes. Enter the following command to apply your new configuration:
sudo service apache2 restart
Repeat steps 1-9 for every other website you want to host on your Linode.
Congratulations! You’ve configured Apache to host one or more websites on your Linode. After you upload files and add DNS records later in this guide, your websites will be accessible to the outside world.
Databases store data in a structured and easily accessible manner, serving as the foundation for hundreds of web and server applications. A variety of open source database platforms exist to meet the needs of applications running on your Linux VPS. This section will help you get started with MySQL, one of the most popular database platforms. For more information about MySQL and other databases, see our database reference manuals.
Here’s how to install and configure MySQL:
Install MySQL by entering the following command. Your Linode will download, install, and start the MySQL database server.
sudo apt-get install mysql-server
You will be prompted to enter a password for the MySQL root user. Enter a password.
Secure MySQL by entering the following command to open mysql_secure_installation utility:
The mysql_secure_installation utility appears. Follow the instructions to remove anonymous user accounts, disable remote root login, and remove the test database.
That’s it! MySQL is now installed and running on your Linode.
Optimizing MySQL for a Linode 1GB
MySQL consumes a lot of memory when using the default configuration. To set resource constraints, you’ll need to edit the MySQL configuration file. Here’s how to optimize MySQL for a Linode 1GB:
These guidelines are designed to optimize MySQL 5.5 and up for a Linode 1GB, but you can use this information for any size Linode. If you have a larger Linode, start with these values and modify them while carefully watching for memory and performance issues.
Open the MySQL configuration file for editing by entering the following command:
sudo nano /etc/mysql/my.cnf
Comment out all lines beginning with key_buffer. This is a deprecated setting and we’ll use the correct option instead.
In MySQL 5.6, you may need to add these lines as one block with [mysql] at the top. In earlier MySQL versions, there may be multiple entries for a single option so be sure to edit both lines.
Add the following lines to the end of my.cnf:
table_open_cache = 32Mkey_buffer_size = 32M
Save the changes to MySQL’s configuration file by pressing Control + x and then pressing y.
Restart MySQL to save the changes. Enter the following command:
sudo service mysql restart
Now that you’ve edited the MySQL configuration file, you’re ready to start creating and importing databases.
Creating a Database
The first thing you’ll need to do in MySQL is create a database. (If you already have a database that you’d like to import, skip to Importing a Database.) Here’s how to create a database in MySQL:
Log in to MySQL by entering the following command and then entering the MySQL root password:
mysql -u root -p
Create a database by entering the following command. Replace exampleDB with your own database name:
create database exampleDB;
Create a new user in MySQL and then grant that user permission to access the new database by issuing the following command. Replace example_user with your username, and 5t1ck with your password:
grant all on exampleDB.* to 'example_user' identified by '5t1ck';
MySQL usernames and passwords are only used by scripts connecting to the database. They do not need to represent actual user accounts on the system.
Tell MySQL to reload the grant tables by issuing the following command:
Now that you’ve created the database and granted a user permissions to the database, you can exit MySQL by entering the following command:
Now you have a new database that you can use for your website. If you don’t need to import a database, go ahead and skip to PHP.
Importing a Database
If you have an existing website, you may want to import an existing database in to MySQL. It’s easy, and it allows you to have an established website up and running on your Linode in a matter of minutes. Here’s how to import a database in to MySQL:
Upload the database file to your Linode. See the instructions in Uploading Files.
Import the database by entering the following command. Replace username with your MySQL username and database_name with the database name you want to import to. You will be prompted for your MySQL password:
mysql -u username -p database_name < FILE.sql
Your database will be imported in to MySQL.
PHP is a general-purpose scripting language that allows you to produce dynamic and interactive webpages. Many popular web applications and content management systems, like WordPress and Drupal, are written in PHP. To develop or host websites using PHP, you must first install the base package and a couple of modules.
Here’s how to install PHP with MySQL support:
Install the base PHP package by entering the following command:
sudo apt-get install php5 php-pear
Add MySQL support by entering the following command:
sudo apt-get install php5-mysql
Optimizing PHP for a Linode 1GB
After you install PHP, you’ll need to enable logging and tune PHP for better performance. The setting you’ll want to pay the most attention to is memory_limit, which controls how much memory is allocated to PHP. Here’s how to enable logging and optimize PHP for performance:
These guidelines are designed to optimize PHP for a Linode 1GB, but you can use this information as a starting point for any size Linode. If you have a larger Linode, you could increase the memory limit to a larger value, like 256M.
Open the PHP configuration files by entering the following command:
sudo nano /etc/php5/apache2/php.ini
Verify that the following values are set. All of the lines listed below should be uncommented. Be sure to remove any semi-colons (;) at the beginning of the lines.
The 128M setting for memory_limit is a general guideline. While this value should be sufficient for most websites, larger websites and some web applications may require 256 megabytes or more.
Save the changes by pressing Control + x and then pressing y.
Create the /var/log/php/ directory for the PHP error log with the following command:
sudo mkdir -p /var/log/php
Change the owner of the /var/log/php/ directory to www-data, which the PHP user runs as:
sudo chown www-data /var/log/php
Restart Apache to load the PHP module by entering the following command:
sudo service apache2 restart
Congratulations! PHP is now installed on your Linode and configured for optimal performance.
You’ve successfully installed Apache, MySQL, and PHP. Now it’s time to upload a website to your Linode. This is one of the last steps before you “flip the switch” and publish your website on the Internet. Here’s how to upload files to your Linode:
If you haven’t done so already, download and install an SFTP capable client on your computer. We recommend using the FileZilla SFTP client.
Follow the instructions in the guides listed above to connect to your Linode.
Upload your website’s files to the /var/www/example.com/public_html directory. Replaceexample.com with your domain name.
If you configured name-based virtual hosts, don’t forget to upload the files for the other websites to their respective directories.
If you’re using a content management system like WordPress or Drupal, you may need to configure the appropriate settings file to point the content management system at the MySQL database.
It’s a good idea to test your website(s) before you add the DNS records. This is your last chance to check everything and make sure that it looks good before it goes live. Here’s how to test your website:
Enter your Linode’s IP address in a web browser (e.g., type http://123.456.78.90 in the address bar, replacing the example IP address with your own.) Your website should load in the web browser.
If you plan on hosting multiple websites you can test the virtual hosts by editing the hosts file on your desktop computer. Check out the Previewing Websites Without DNS guide for more information.
Test the name-based virtual hosts by entering the domain names in the address bar of the web browser on your desktop computer. Your websites should load in the web browser.
Remember to remove the entries for the name-based virtual hosts from your hosts file when you’re ready to test the DNS records.
Adding DNS Records
Now you need to point your domain name(s) at your Linode. This process can take a while, so please allow up to 24 hours for DNS changes to be reflected throughout the Internet. Here’s how to add DNS records:
Select the Add a domain zone link. The form shown below appears.
In the Domain field, enter your website’s domain name in the Domain field.
In the SOA Email field, enter the administrative contact email address for your domain.
Select the Yes, insert a few records to get me started button.
Click Add a Master Zone. Several DNS records will be created for your domain, as shown below.
Over at your domain registrar (where you bought the domain), make sure that your domain name is set to use our DNS server. Use your domain name registrar’s interface to set the name servers for your domain to the following:
Repeat steps 1-8 for every other name-based virtual host you created earlier.
You’ve added DNS records for your website(s). Remember, DNS changes can take up to 24 hours to propagate through the Internet. Be patient! Once the DNS changes are completed, you will be able to access your website by typing the domain name in to your browser’s address bar.
Setting Reverse DNS
You’re almost finished! The last step is setting reverse DNS for your domain name. Here’s how:
For a few employments, employers demand letters of recommendation in written format. They may even ask for them as a feature of the provision process. In these cases, the petitioner is asked to submit recommendation letters (commonly a few) with their resume and presentation document.
When you’re approached to furnish a reference for a particular job opportunity, the best letter of recommendation will be one that is composed with the necessities of that specific employment as a top priority. When you’re asked to compose a general recommendation letter, you can at present concentrate on the sorts or classification of employments for which the individual is applying.
Approach any friends or somebody you know can provide you with a duplicate copy of the job posting and their resume before you start creating your letter. It can additionally be fruitful to perceive how they pitch their capabilities for the job opportunity.
When you are composing a more general proposal, you might as well still request the subject from your letter to framework their focuses for business. Ask them for a case or two of employments they are seeking. Also ask them to furnish their marketable assets for that sort of work, particularly ones you may have watched in your relationship with the person you are recommending.
Recommendation Letter Template
In the event that you are composing a personal letter of reference, incorporate a welcome (Dear Dr. Name, Mr. Name and so on.). Assuming that you are composing a general letter, say “To Whom it May Concern” or don’t incorporate a greeting. In the event that you don’t incorporate a greeting begin your letter with the first passage.
The main section of a proposal letter clarifies your association with the individual you are suggesting, incorporating how you know them, and why you are qualified to suggest the individual for vocation or school.
The second passage of a suggestion letter holds data about the singular you are expounding on, incorporating why they are qualified, what they can help, and why you are prescribing them. Assuming that essential, utilize more than one passage to give parts.
The point when composing a letter prescribing an applicant for a particular employment opportunity, the proposal letter may as well incorporate data on how the individual’s abilities match the position they are petitioning. Request a duplicate of the occupation posting and a duplicate of the individual’s continue so you can focus on your letter appropriately.
This segment of the proposal later holds a concise outline of why are you are proposing the individual. State that you “firmly suggest” the individual or you “propose without reservation” or “has my most noteworthy proposal” or something comparable.
The closing passage of your proposal letter holds an offer to give more data. Incorporate a telephone number inside the section, incorporate the telephone number and message address in the return location segment of your letter, or in your signature.
A cover letter is essentially an acquaintance letter appended with an occupation resume. Individuals who are searching for an occupation generally send covering letter as a method for acquainting themselves with conceivable bosses. A covering letter gives a short illustration of why you are sending a provision, how you researched the position, and a short portrayal of what is appended. A Cover letter is the letter which point out your experience, and show the work state of mind you need the viewer to know.
Importance of a Cover Letter
The importance of the covering letter is that the employment seekers are eager to treat the covering letter as a bit of hindsight. They’ve put so much time and thought into their continuity that they may see the letter as simply an obliged however insignificant connection. About ninety one percent of executives surveyed said that this covering letter are important when assessing occupation to the competitors. Furthermore in spite of the fact that the employment requisition process has basically moved, the essentialness of a letter is still vital. Seventy-nine percent of chiefs overviewed said it is regular to accept the letter actually when candidates submit continually.
Utility of Covering Letter
It provides for them you an alternate stage to advertise your aptitudes and pass on your investment in the organization.
A well-done presentation document showcases your relational abilities.
Employing chiefs read presentation documents, in the event that they are propelling.
A presentation document provides for them you more room to customize your message to the employer/contact.
You can utilize it to fill as a part of any holes in your resume.
It can help you advertise your transferable aptitudes.
Advantage and Disadvantages of a Cover Letter
The fundamental playing point of a cover letter is telling the onlooker or boss what precisely they are in for. They permit the viewer to get an impression of the instructive and work foundation of a potential worker. A cover letter is a great approach to give an initial introduction that may help in the employment choice methodology. The primary disservice of a cover letter is the written work. Assuming that the composition in the letter is exceptional, the spectator will take a gander at the going hand in hand with records, for example, the resume or the CV.
Specimen Cover Letter for Employment
Name of Applicant
Name of the Company
Dear Ms. XXXXXXX,
I am keeping in touch with to ask about conceivable openings at ABC Company for an interview. I am intrigued by a senior level position offering the chance for travel and propelled examination assignments.
As an expert regulatory associate with magnificent exploration abilities, I am energetic to help my capacities and experience to ABC Company. Given my impressive preparing and foundation, I accept I can help ABC Company reach its objective of giving just the most precise and opportune data to its customers.
If it’s not too much trouble treasure encased my resume and a rundown of my references. You may call 000.000.0000, to mastermind a period to meet. I anticipate got notification from you.
The resume is a collection of useful details of somebody who is looking for any job or a change in job in any industry and this resume will be used as an attachment with the letter of application formally written. Any person applying for a job should be ready with his or her resume. Regardless, to have the capacity of seeking a job, people will usually required providing a resume which is truly a recorded statement of the jobseeker’s experience, ability, and training.
In a school life there are many possibilities for learners to start picking up work experience. In realty, many students make use of these prospects and will get work in retail or accommodation.
The resume will help the candidate to seek internships or any part time jobs. The resume will show the knowledge, skill-sets and internships or work experience if any. This will help the employer in judging the possibilities for a specific job profile. Hence, it is a must to compose an adequate resume showing all the abilities and information the candidate is having for fulfilling the criterion for a specific job position.
Elements of a good resume
A perfect student’s resume holds the particular details, objectives, academic qualifications, key qualities, previous work experience [if required], rewards & recognitions , extra- curricular activities. With personal details like name, contact address, contact number, etc. The academic qualifications part depicts the student’s capability which can be used to judge whether he or she is qualified for a specific job position. The objectives part defines aims and objectives for attaining high position in the organization utilizing your abilities and learning viably. The quality part defines your aptitudes and learning that might be functional in the job position applying for. This will help the employer to understand that you have sufficient knowledge on the job position. The previous work experience is an important part in the student resume. This segment may include the details of internships or summer projects during school life. It helps the employer to comprehend your learning level and range of expertise. And the co- curricular activity part must hold the details of other essential experience gathered throughout the academic period.
A resume creates the first impression about you in your potential future company. Hence it is always essential to make your resume reflect your style. A neat and professional resume will set you aside from thousands of applications and can help you get noticed. But not sure what to include in your resume? Never written a professional resume before? Here is the basic outline to resume making for you.
How to use this resume outline
There are many sections provided in this resume outline. Pick the relevant sections and fill in your own information there. It is very advisable to follow the same pattern. The end formatting should be done in a professional font in a standard 11 or 12 sizing. The finished version of your resume will be ready.
The chronological resume outline
This is the very widely accepted form of resume writing. It highlights all your advantages, benefits and features.
Your first name and last name.
Home phone and cell phone
Your current email address
Any additional info like websites/ social networking/ blog
Explain about the specific job position you are looking for. Focus on the types of roles you would like to be offered.
List your major skills that can be useful in applying to this job.
List any language skills and management skills.
List all relevant IT skills.
List all your major achievements in your educative level.
List al your major accomplishments in your previous jobs.
Make this portion at least four to five lines long.
Specify the dates, mounts and years you worked in your previous companies.
Specify your job roles with your previous employers.
If you are a senior with a lot of work experience, condense everything and focus only on the last 10 years or so.
If you are quite new to the industry, but have changed employers several times, it is best to leave some out and produce a concise work history.
You may specify your previous employer’s contact information but not your salary details.
Specify information about the degrees you have earned.
It is very common to include discontinued degrees too.
Specify all relevant seminars and projects.
Specify the years of training and professional associations.
Include all certificate courses you have completed.
Some choose to omit this portion out of their resume. This is an optional part where you can talk about your hobbies and interests related to the job you are applying for. If your resume has passed over a page, then it is advisable to leave this out. Never state any information about your race, age or other personal info in your resume or CV.
You can simply fill this as references will be made available upon request.
So you now have your resume outline. This outline will help you to know the various parts of a resume and their content. Keep this handy and prepare your resume.
Resume objective is the section to clearly mention your career aspirations and highlight your key skill sets that suits the requirement of the employer. Good resume objectives will always impress the interviewer or employer.
Shape your Resume Objective
You might be applying for the same kind of position which falls under same industry, but you have to design the objective after understanding the pulse of the organization.
For example, if you are applying for a Manager position in a two organizations falling under same industry where one is more customers centric and the other one is process centric. Then for the first organization your resume objective should talk more about the importance you give for the customer requests and the next should highlight the interest in following the process.
“Seeking a Manager position in the organization with opportunities to apply my skills, education and 5 years of experience in Customer handling for the growth of the organization without compromising the company process”
“Seeking a Manager position in the organization with opportunities to apply my skills, education and 5 years of experience in process oriented activities for the growth of the organization without compromising the Customer servicing”
If you are a fresh candidate then you should mention your quick learning capability and the interest you have in exploring new fields.
Your objective can be like this,
Seeking opportunity to gain the experience and growth in the field of automobiles with my Automobile Engineering educational back ground.
If you are sending your resume of a position that does not matches with your educational back ground then your objective should read like this
Fresh Mechanical Engineering graduate with interest in exploring Automobiles fields to gain versatile knowledge and experience that ensures both professional and personal growth
If you are an experienced person then don’t forget to mention your years of experience, technical skills, soft skills and your expectation.
Computer Science Engineer with 10 years of experience in IT industry exclusively in Web based and Mainframes based Test Management and Test artifacts preparation. Seeking for an opportunity that demands leadership qualities and people management activities where I can utilize my soft skills and technical skills for my personal growth and for the growth of the company.
Few more examples
For a Marketing professional
MBA professional with 5 years of experience in Marketing. Looking for Area Manager Position in the organization with opportunities in Sales department where I can demonstrate my skills in convincing people with the help of my educational background and my experience.
Human Resource Personnel
MBA in Human Resource with 3 years of experience includes Recruitment handling and Induction formalities. Seeking Human Resource coordinator position where I can use my people management skill to add values to the core process of the organization
These are some of the samples which you can consider while preparing your resume. Tailor it according to your needs and find innovative ways to impress your employer. All the best.
Resume objective is one of the key sections to give a power start to your resume. This is the first part that will grab the attention of the people who are searching a suitable candidate for their organization’s requirement. Concise and clear objectives will always impress your employer. It should be convincing enough to lead your interviewer to read your resume further to know your skill set and area of expertise.
Purpose of Resume
Objective should tell the employer about your educational qualification, certifications, and experience in the relevant industry, your key skill sets and your knowledge in related field.
Objectives in your resume should be comprised of the data which are beneficial to you and your employer. Your objective should be a pack of your expectations that are wrapped in a way that are favorable to your employer.
Make it simple and be genuine
Use simple sentences in your objective, because lengthy sentences might dilute the information which you are trying to convey. It is better to avoid jargons in the objective, because the person who is doing the initial screening of your resume might not be having the deep knowledge in your area of expertise to understand the meanings of the jargons.
Convey what you can offer in a humble way without any exaggerations in your skill set. Do not include any abstract statements which might give a not-so-real feel to the interviewer.
Know your Employer’s preference
Presenting the same objective to different organizations might not work out because the differentiating factor might get missed out here. So, customize your resume objective in a way that matches with the position for which you are sending your resume. Analyze the job description provided by the employer then mold your objective accordingly. This will make a “right candidate” kind of impression in the mindset of your interviewer. If you are shifting your career from one industry to the other then mention your interests in knowing new things in your objective.
Objective linked with Resumes
Objective should be a prelude of the items which you are going to present in your resume. There should be a link between your objective and resume. It is quite obvious that your expectation to be an apple but with quality of oranges will end up in disappointments. There should not be any information that is irrelevant to the data presented in your resume. Sometimes, the interviewer will start questioning right from your objective and might try to compare it with the data that talks about your experience.
Key-points in the Resume objective
Over-furnishing your objective with all your skill sets might make your reader to get bored about your resume and might stop them there itself. Ensure that your objective is having the key skill sets which match with the organization’s requirement for the position you are applying.
These are some tips to keep in your mind while writing the resume objective. All the best for you to get a suitable job.