– make sure you have installed php-fpm 7.0, 7.1 or 7.2…you can choose any version. – rebuild your webservers with Nginx & Varnish & Apache.
Now we will explain here two types of websites, one is webshop or website with order forms and frequent changes and the other is a company website that doesn’t make updates frequently but has a high traffic.
1. webshop (or website with frequent changes). 2. company website (which has no frequent changes but has a high traffic).
1. webshop (or website with frequent changes) * for this kind of website we recommend that the varnish is disabled or has a custom config, please note that by default varnish is always disabled so you will not need to do anything specific here as varnish needs to be additionally enabled even if you run webservers with setup Nginx & Varnish & Apache.
– default php-fpm configuration for version 7.0, 7.1 or 7.2 will be ok. – nginx should be enabled and if you have built servers as Nginx & Varnish & Apache then you are ok. – Make sure that in left menu WebServers Settings -> WebServers Domain Conf config for your domain for apache is set to nginx -> apache -> php-fpm and PHP-FPM version is set to 7.0, 7.1 or 7.2. – if you run WordPress you should install in WordPress cache plugin like “W3 Total Cache”. and you are ready to go, with this kind of setup your site will be able to handle up to 15x more traffic with much higher speed.
2. company website (which has no frequent changes but has a high traffic) * for this kind of website we recommend that varnish is enabled, please note that by default varnish is always disabled so you will need to additionally enabled it even if you run webservers with setup Nginx & Varnish & Apache.
– default php-fpm configuration for version 7.0, 7.1 or 7.2 will be ok. – nginx&varnish should be enabled and if you have built servers as Nginx & Varnish & Apache then you are ok. – Make sure that in left menu WebServers Settings -> WebServers Domain Conf config for your domain for apache is set to nginx -> varnish -> apache -> php-fpm and PHP-FPM version is set to 7.0, 7.1 or 7.2. This will activate Varnish and php-fpm. – if you run WordPress you should install in WordPress cache plugin like “W3 Total Cache”. and you are ready to go, with this kind of setup your site will be able to handle up to 30x more traffic with much higher speed.
** Please note that php 7 is recommended here as it’s much faster than php 5.
Kevin Ohashi, The Founder at Review Signal published very useful post about high traffic handle with a small vps from digital Ocean. In this article he was inspired by Ewan Leith’s post 10 Million hits a day on WordPress using a $15 server. Ewan built a server that handled 250 users/second without issue using Varnish, Nginx, PHP-APC, and W3 Total Cache.
Whoever, Kevin get this 40 million hits on a small vps hosted by Digital ocean and using LEMP+PHP-FPM. on a ubuntu. Here is the most detailled article about performance and optimisation of wordpress on a small vps.
Now that you’ve installed Linux and secured your Linode, it’s time to start doing stuff with it. In this guide, you’ll learn how to host a website. Start by installing a web server, database, and PHP – a popular combination which is commonly referred to a LAMP stack (Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP). Then create or import a database, upload files, and add DNS records. By the time you reach the end of this guide, your Linode will be hosting one or more websites!
Debian 7 and Ubuntu 14.04 LTS are the Linux distributions we’re using as the starting point for the packages and configurations mentioned in this guide.
This guide is designed for small and medium-size websites running on WordPress, Drupal, or another PHP content management system. If your website doesn’t belong in that category, you’ll need to assess your requirements and install custom packages tailored for your particular requirements.
This guide is written for a non-root user. Commands that require elevated privileges are prefixed with sudo. If you’re not familiar with the sudo command, you can check our Users and Groups guide.
Hosting a website starts with installing a web server, an application on your Linode that delivers content through the Internet. This section will help you get started with Apache, the world’s most popular web server. For more information about Apache and other web servers, see our web server reference manuals.
Install Apache on your Linode by entering the following command:
sudo apt-get install apache2
Your Linode will download, install, and start the Apache web server.
Optimizing Apache for a Linode 1GB
Installing Apache is easy, but if you leave it running with the default settings, your server could run out of memory. That’s why it’s important to optimize Apache before you start hosting a website on your Linode. Here’s how to optimize the Apache web server for a Linode 1GB:
These guidelines are designed to optimize Apache for a Linode 1GB, but you can use this information for any size Linode. The values are based on the amount of memory available, so if you have a Linode 2GB, multiply all of the values by 2 and use those numbers for your settings.
Just to be safe, make a copy of Apache’s configuration file by entering the following command. You can restore the duplicate (apache2.backup.conf) if anything happens to the configuration file.
Save the changes to Apache’s configuration file by pressing Control + x and then pressingy. Press Enter to confirm.
Restart Apache to incorporate the new settings. Enter the following command:
sudo service apache2 restart
Good work! You’ve successfully optimized Apache for your Linode, increasing performance and implementing safeguards to prevent excessive resource consumption. You’re almost ready to host websites with Apache.
Configuring Name-based Virtual Hosts
Now that Apache is optimized for performance, it’s time to starting hosting one or more websites. There are several possible methods of doing this. In this section, you’ll use name-based virtual hosts to host websites in your home directory. Here’s how:
You should not be logged in as root while executing these commands. To learn how to create a new user account and log in as that user, see Adding a New User.
Disable the default Apache virtual host by entering the following command:
sudo a2dissite *default
Navigate to your /var/www directory:
Create a folder to hold your website by entering the following command, replacing ‘example.com’ with your domain name:
sudo mkdir example.com
Create a set of folders inside the folder you’ve just created to store your website’s files, logs, and backups. Enter the following command, replacing example.com with your domain name:
The file name must end with .conf in Apache versions 2.4 and later, which Ubuntu 14.04 uses. The .confextension is backwards-compatible with earlier versions.
Now it’s time to create a configuration for your virtual host. We’ve created some basic settings to get your started. Copy and paste the settings shown below in to the virtual host file you just created. Replace example.com with your domain name.
# domain: example.com
# public: /var/www/example.com/public_html/
# Admin email, Server Name (domain name), and any aliases
ServerAdmin [email protected]
# Index file and Document Root (where the public files are located)
DirectoryIndex index.html index.php
# Log file locations
CustomLog /var/www/example.com/log/access.log combined
Save the changes to the virtual host configuration file by pressing Control + x and then pressing y. Press Enter to confirm.
Enable your new website by entering the following command. Replace example.com with your domain name:
sudo a2ensite example.com.conf
This creates a symbolic link to your example.com.conf file in the appropriate directory for active virtual hosts.
The previous command will alert you that you need to restart Apache to save the changes. Enter the following command to apply your new configuration:
sudo service apache2 restart
Repeat steps 1-9 for every other website you want to host on your Linode.
Congratulations! You’ve configured Apache to host one or more websites on your Linode. After you upload files and add DNS records later in this guide, your websites will be accessible to the outside world.
Databases store data in a structured and easily accessible manner, serving as the foundation for hundreds of web and server applications. A variety of open source database platforms exist to meet the needs of applications running on your Linux VPS. This section will help you get started with MySQL, one of the most popular database platforms. For more information about MySQL and other databases, see our database reference manuals.
Here’s how to install and configure MySQL:
Install MySQL by entering the following command. Your Linode will download, install, and start the MySQL database server.
sudo apt-get install mysql-server
You will be prompted to enter a password for the MySQL root user. Enter a password.
Secure MySQL by entering the following command to open mysql_secure_installation utility:
The mysql_secure_installation utility appears. Follow the instructions to remove anonymous user accounts, disable remote root login, and remove the test database.
That’s it! MySQL is now installed and running on your Linode.
Optimizing MySQL for a Linode 1GB
MySQL consumes a lot of memory when using the default configuration. To set resource constraints, you’ll need to edit the MySQL configuration file. Here’s how to optimize MySQL for a Linode 1GB:
These guidelines are designed to optimize MySQL 5.5 and up for a Linode 1GB, but you can use this information for any size Linode. If you have a larger Linode, start with these values and modify them while carefully watching for memory and performance issues.
Open the MySQL configuration file for editing by entering the following command:
sudo nano /etc/mysql/my.cnf
Comment out all lines beginning with key_buffer. This is a deprecated setting and we’ll use the correct option instead.
In MySQL 5.6, you may need to add these lines as one block with [mysql] at the top. In earlier MySQL versions, there may be multiple entries for a single option so be sure to edit both lines.
Add the following lines to the end of my.cnf:
table_open_cache = 32Mkey_buffer_size = 32M
Save the changes to MySQL’s configuration file by pressing Control + x and then pressing y.
Restart MySQL to save the changes. Enter the following command:
sudo service mysql restart
Now that you’ve edited the MySQL configuration file, you’re ready to start creating and importing databases.
Creating a Database
The first thing you’ll need to do in MySQL is create a database. (If you already have a database that you’d like to import, skip to Importing a Database.) Here’s how to create a database in MySQL:
Log in to MySQL by entering the following command and then entering the MySQL root password:
mysql -u root -p
Create a database by entering the following command. Replace exampleDB with your own database name:
create database exampleDB;
Create a new user in MySQL and then grant that user permission to access the new database by issuing the following command. Replace example_user with your username, and 5t1ck with your password:
grant all on exampleDB.* to 'example_user' identified by '5t1ck';
MySQL usernames and passwords are only used by scripts connecting to the database. They do not need to represent actual user accounts on the system.
Tell MySQL to reload the grant tables by issuing the following command:
Now that you’ve created the database and granted a user permissions to the database, you can exit MySQL by entering the following command:
Now you have a new database that you can use for your website. If you don’t need to import a database, go ahead and skip to PHP.
Importing a Database
If you have an existing website, you may want to import an existing database in to MySQL. It’s easy, and it allows you to have an established website up and running on your Linode in a matter of minutes. Here’s how to import a database in to MySQL:
Upload the database file to your Linode. See the instructions in Uploading Files.
Import the database by entering the following command. Replace username with your MySQL username and database_name with the database name you want to import to. You will be prompted for your MySQL password:
mysql -u username -p database_name < FILE.sql
Your database will be imported in to MySQL.
PHP is a general-purpose scripting language that allows you to produce dynamic and interactive webpages. Many popular web applications and content management systems, like WordPress and Drupal, are written in PHP. To develop or host websites using PHP, you must first install the base package and a couple of modules.
Here’s how to install PHP with MySQL support:
Install the base PHP package by entering the following command:
sudo apt-get install php5 php-pear
Add MySQL support by entering the following command:
sudo apt-get install php5-mysql
Optimizing PHP for a Linode 1GB
After you install PHP, you’ll need to enable logging and tune PHP for better performance. The setting you’ll want to pay the most attention to is memory_limit, which controls how much memory is allocated to PHP. Here’s how to enable logging and optimize PHP for performance:
These guidelines are designed to optimize PHP for a Linode 1GB, but you can use this information as a starting point for any size Linode. If you have a larger Linode, you could increase the memory limit to a larger value, like 256M.
Open the PHP configuration files by entering the following command:
sudo nano /etc/php5/apache2/php.ini
Verify that the following values are set. All of the lines listed below should be uncommented. Be sure to remove any semi-colons (;) at the beginning of the lines.
The 128M setting for memory_limit is a general guideline. While this value should be sufficient for most websites, larger websites and some web applications may require 256 megabytes or more.
Save the changes by pressing Control + x and then pressing y.
Create the /var/log/php/ directory for the PHP error log with the following command:
sudo mkdir -p /var/log/php
Change the owner of the /var/log/php/ directory to www-data, which the PHP user runs as:
sudo chown www-data /var/log/php
Restart Apache to load the PHP module by entering the following command:
sudo service apache2 restart
Congratulations! PHP is now installed on your Linode and configured for optimal performance.
You’ve successfully installed Apache, MySQL, and PHP. Now it’s time to upload a website to your Linode. This is one of the last steps before you “flip the switch” and publish your website on the Internet. Here’s how to upload files to your Linode:
If you haven’t done so already, download and install an SFTP capable client on your computer. We recommend using the FileZilla SFTP client.
Follow the instructions in the guides listed above to connect to your Linode.
Upload your website’s files to the /var/www/example.com/public_html directory. Replaceexample.com with your domain name.
If you configured name-based virtual hosts, don’t forget to upload the files for the other websites to their respective directories.
If you’re using a content management system like WordPress or Drupal, you may need to configure the appropriate settings file to point the content management system at the MySQL database.
It’s a good idea to test your website(s) before you add the DNS records. This is your last chance to check everything and make sure that it looks good before it goes live. Here’s how to test your website:
Enter your Linode’s IP address in a web browser (e.g., type http://123.456.78.90 in the address bar, replacing the example IP address with your own.) Your website should load in the web browser.
If you plan on hosting multiple websites you can test the virtual hosts by editing the hosts file on your desktop computer. Check out the Previewing Websites Without DNS guide for more information.
Test the name-based virtual hosts by entering the domain names in the address bar of the web browser on your desktop computer. Your websites should load in the web browser.
Remember to remove the entries for the name-based virtual hosts from your hosts file when you’re ready to test the DNS records.
Adding DNS Records
Now you need to point your domain name(s) at your Linode. This process can take a while, so please allow up to 24 hours for DNS changes to be reflected throughout the Internet. Here’s how to add DNS records:
Select the Add a domain zone link. The form shown below appears.
In the Domain field, enter your website’s domain name in the Domain field.
In the SOA Email field, enter the administrative contact email address for your domain.
Select the Yes, insert a few records to get me started button.
Click Add a Master Zone. Several DNS records will be created for your domain, as shown below.
Over at your domain registrar (where you bought the domain), make sure that your domain name is set to use our DNS server. Use your domain name registrar’s interface to set the name servers for your domain to the following:
Repeat steps 1-8 for every other name-based virtual host you created earlier.
You’ve added DNS records for your website(s). Remember, DNS changes can take up to 24 hours to propagate through the Internet. Be patient! Once the DNS changes are completed, you will be able to access your website by typing the domain name in to your browser’s address bar.
Setting Reverse DNS
You’re almost finished! The last step is setting reverse DNS for your domain name. Here’s how:
The resume is a collection of useful details of somebody who is looking for any job or a change in job in any industry and this resume will be used as an attachment with the letter of application formally written. Any person applying for a job should be ready with his or her resume. Regardless, to have the capacity of seeking a job, people will usually required providing a resume which is truly a recorded statement of the jobseeker’s experience, ability, and training.
In a school life there are many possibilities for learners to start picking up work experience. In realty, many students make use of these prospects and will get work in retail or accommodation.
The resume will help the candidate to seek internships or any part time jobs. The resume will show the knowledge, skill-sets and internships or work experience if any. This will help the employer in judging the possibilities for a specific job profile. Hence, it is a must to compose an adequate resume showing all the abilities and information the candidate is having for fulfilling the criterion for a specific job position.
Elements of a good resume
A perfect student’s resume holds the particular details, objectives, academic qualifications, key qualities, previous work experience [if required], rewards & recognitions , extra- curricular activities. With personal details like name, contact address, contact number, etc. The academic qualifications part depicts the student’s capability which can be used to judge whether he or she is qualified for a specific job position. The objectives part defines aims and objectives for attaining high position in the organization utilizing your abilities and learning viably. The quality part defines your aptitudes and learning that might be functional in the job position applying for. This will help the employer to understand that you have sufficient knowledge on the job position. The previous work experience is an important part in the student resume. This segment may include the details of internships or summer projects during school life. It helps the employer to comprehend your learning level and range of expertise. And the co- curricular activity part must hold the details of other essential experience gathered throughout the academic period.